12/ See, for example, OECD, Interfutures: Facing the Future (Paris: 1979) and Council on Environmental Quality and U.S. Department of State, The Global 2000 Report to the President: Entering the Twenty-First Century, The Technical Report, Vol. We are the first to feel the pollution of our waters, as the Ojibway peoples of my own homelands in northern Ontario will attest. Development policies must widen people's options for earning a sustainable livelihood, particularly for resource-poor households and in areas under ecological stress. It contains within it two key concepts: 2. In this case, if the income distribution remains unchanged, per capita national income would have to double before the poverty ratio drops from 50 to 10 per cent. UK projections suggest that by the first decade of the next century, the absolute size of rural populations in most developing countries will start declining. The poverty line is that level of income below which an individual or household cannot afford on a regular basis the necessities of life. These resources must be conserved and enhanced to meet the needs of growing populations. The ultimate limits to global development are perhaps determined by the availability of energy resources and by the biosphere's capacity to absorb the by-products of energy use./11/ These energy limits may be approached far sooner than the limits imposed by other material resources. a production system that respects the obligation to preserve the ecological base for development. If income is redistributed in favour of the poor, this reduction can occur sooner. (This chapter concerns itself with national strategies. Technologies are needed that produce 'social goods', such as improved air quality or increased product life, or that resolve problems normally outside the cost calculus of individual enterprises, such as the external costs of pollution or waste disposal. The challenge is to manage the process so as to avoid a severe deterioration in the quality of life. Sectoral organizations tend to pursue sectoral objectives and to treat their impacts on other sectors as side effects, taken into account only if compelled to do so. Changing the quality of growth requires changing our approach to development efforts to take account of all of their effects. Thus the goals of economic and social development must be defined in terms of sustainability in all countries - developed or developing, market-oriented or centrally planned. It must also work to remove disabilities from disadvantaged groups, many of whom live in ecologically vulnerable areas, such as many tribal groups in forests, desert nomads, groups in remote hill areas, and indigenous peoples of the Americas and Australasia. WCED Public Hearing The costs of regenerating the forest are not taken into account, unless money is actually spent on such work. Arriving at a commonly accepted definition of 'sustainable development' remains a challenge for all the actors in the development process. More immediate needs include modifying the pattern of world trade in minerals to allow exporters a higher share in the value added from mineral use, and improving the access of developing countries to mineral supplies, as their demands increase. Sustainable development involves more than growth. Interdependence is not simply a local phenomenon. A forest may be destroyed by excessive felling because the people living there have no alternatives or because timber contractors generally have more influence then forest dwellers. Cause and effect is one of the most common methods of organizing and discussing ideas. Income distribution is one aspect of the quality of growth, as described in the preceding section, and rapid growth combined with deteriorating income distribution may be worse than slower growth combined with redistribution in favour of the poor. WCED Public Hearing See Chapter 9. All too often poverty is such that people cannot satisfy their needs for survival and well-being even if goods and services are available. The answer lies partly in education, institutional development, and law enforcement. The fishing policies of one state affect the fish catch of another. It is not that there is one set of villains and another of victims. The fulfilment of all these tasks will require the reorientation of technology the key link between humans and nature. It has not been too difficult to push the environment lobby of the North and the development lobby of the South together. The integration of economic and ecological factors into the law and into decision making systems within countries has to be matched at the international level. Thus a reorientation of international economic relations will be necessary for sustainable development, as discussed in Chapter 3. We are still the first to know about changes in the environment, but we are now the last to be asked or consulted. But physical sustainability cannot be secured unless development policies pay attention to such considerations as changes in access to resources and in the distribution of costs and benefits. 13/ See 'For Municipal initiative and Citizen Power', in INDERENA, La Campana Verde y los Concejos Verdes (Bogota, Colombia: 1985). The most urgent problem is the requirements of poor Third World households, which depend mainly on fuelwood. The minimum requirements for cooking fuel in most developing countries appear to be on the order of 250 kilogrammes of coal equivalent per capita per year. This is a fair representation of the situation in many low-income developing countries. Critical objectives for environment and development policies that follow from the concept of sustainable development include: 29. All would be better off if each person took into account the effect o" his or her acts upon others. Yet it is not enough to broaden the range of economic variables taken into account. In a hilly area, for instance, economic self-interest and ecology can be combined by helping farmers shift from grain to tree crops by providing them with advice, equipment, and marketing assistance. 12. But at least by hearing all those questions, stories, all these expressions that have been put forward, at least you could have some idea. Relying more on smallholder cultivation may be slower at first, but more easily sustained over the long term. Jaime Da Silva Araujo A growing proportion of city-dwellers live in slums and shanty towns, many of them exposed to air and water pollution and to industrial and natural hazards. I don't have anything that was created in somebody's office. 65. Economic and social development can and should be mutually reinforcing. These alternatives can be promoted only by an agricultural policy based on ecological realities. Sustainability requires views of human needs and well-being that incorporate such non-economic variables as education and health enjoyed for their own sake, clean air and water, and the protection of natural beauty. Growth has no set limits in terms of population or resource use beyond which lies ecological disaster. Developing-country cities are growing much faster than the capacity of authorities to cope. The total population of the industrialized world could increase from its current 1.2 billion to about 1.4 billion in the year 2025./8. Additionally, we will share valuable tips and tricks to help students of all ages impress their readers at the last moment. But increased food production should not be based on ecologically unsound production policies and compromise long-term prospects for food security. Nairobi, 23 Sept 1986. Richard Sandbrook There is thus a need for new techniques and technologies - as well as legal and institutional mechanisms - for safety design and control, accident prevention, contingency planning, damage mitigation, and provision of relief. From A/42/427. These requirements are more in the nature of goals that should underlie national and international action on development. I am here to speak about the tropical forest. an economic system that is able to generate surpluses and technical knowledge on a self-reliant and sustained basis. You don't know the answers nor the solutions, but you could suggest the way to solve many problems and this is by suggesting either to governments, or the UN, or international agencies, to solve any problem the best way: that is to include those with direct interests in it. The building blocks are there. Fortunately, the gap is closing. Thus: 18. The technologies of industrial countries are not always suited or easily adaptable to the socio-economic and environmental conditions of developing countries. The rest comes out as wastes. Deficiencies in these areas are often visible manifestations of environmental stress. Free access to relevant information and the availability of alternative sources of technical expertise can provide an informed basis for public discussion. In fact, increased access to family planning services is itself a form of social development that allows couples, and women in particular, the right to self-determination. The issues that have been brought forward here, I think, are wide-ranging and maybe you know, maybe you don't know, the answers to all those issues. 51-70 years if it grows only at 1 per cent. See Chapter 9. It is part of our moral obligation to other living beings and future generations. Ensuring a Sustainable Level of Population, 5. We are the gate-keepers of success or failure to husband our resources. As for non-renewable resources, like fossil fuels and minerals, their use reduces the stock available for future generations. The role of public policy is to ensure, through incentives and disincentives, that commercial organizations find it worthwhile to take fuller account of environmental factors in the technologies they develop. Growth must be revived in developing countries because that is where the links between economic growth, the alleviation of poverty, and environmental conditions operate most directly. No supranational authority exists to resolve such issues, and the common interest can only be articulated through international cooperation. Not enough is being done to adapt recent innovations in materials technology, energy conservation, information technology, and biotechnology to the needs of developing countries. When urban air quality deteriorates, the poor, in their more vulnerable areas, suffer more health damage than the rich, who usually live in more pristine neighbourhoods. When mineral resources become depleted, late-comers to the industrialization process lose the benefits of low-cost supplies. It is not only used in academic papers, but in everyday life as well. Consider a nation in which half the population lives below the poverty line and where the distribution of household incomes is as follows: the top one-fifth of households have 50 per cent of total income, the next fifth have 20 per cent, the next fifth have 14 per cent, the next fifth have 9 per cent, and the bottom fifth have just 7 per cent. 47. A major purpose of large system design should be to make the consequences of failure or sabotage less serious. Permits the researcher to identify cause and effect relationships between variables and to … 6. 8. 41. WCED Public Hearing 39. 1. Shortages of housing, water, sanitation, and mass transit are widespread. The percentage of the population below that line will depend on per capita national income and the manner in which it is distributed. Examples/Illustrations. In composition, development (also known as elaboration) is the process of adding informative and illustrative details to support the main idea in a paragraph or essay. Such a view places the right to use public and private resources in its proper social context and provides a goal for more specific measures. So maybe the environmental organizations should step in and look for ways to prevent this kind of destruction. 57. 10. 79. Changes are also required in the attitudes and procedures of both public and private-sector enterprises. Internationally, monopolistic control over resources can drive those who do not share in them to excessive exploitation of marginal resources. 17. In Africa, the task is particularly challenging given the recent declining per capita food production and the current constraints on growth. 20. Population policies should be integrated with other economic and social development programmes female education, health care, and the expansion of the livelihood base of the poor. As demand increases, a greater and greater strain is put on the finite area of the world's land to produce the products needed. ThoughtCo. Elsewhere, it can be consistent with economic growth, provided the content of growth reflects the broad principles of sustainability and non-exploitation of others. a technological system that can search continuously for new solutions, an international system that fosters sustainable patterns of trade and finance, and. Ecological interactions do not respect the boundaries of individual ownership and political jurisdiction. In general the rate of depletion should take into account the criticality of that resource, the availability of technologies tor minimizing depletion, and the likelihood of substitutes being available. (2020, August 27). 22. Rubber Tapper Council High levels of productive activity and widespread poverty can coexist, and can endanger the environment. The most basic of all needs is for a livelihood: that is, employment. Views and Recommendations of the Committee for Development Planning (New York: UN, 1986). Rapid growth in production has extended it to the international plane, with both physical and economic manifestations. the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs. Different limits hold for the use of energy, materials, water, and land. In its broadest sense, the strategy for sustainable development aims to promote harmony among human brings and between humanity and nature. Land use in agriculture and forestry must be based on a scientific assessment of land capacity, and the annual depletion of topsoil, fish stock, or forest resources must not exceed the rate of regeneration. Urbanization is itself part of the development process. 4 The satisfaction of human needs and aspirations in the major objective of development. Development tends to simplify ecosystems and to reduce their diversity of species. In the same way, the ability of a government to control its national economy is reduced by growing international economic interactions. In effect, there is a political community of interest, North and South, in the concept of sustainable development that you can build upon. In Latin America, average growth rates on the order of 5 per cent were achieved during the 1960s and 1970s, but fell well below that in the first half of this decade, mainly because of the debt crisis./1 A revival of Latin American growth depends on the resolution of this crisis. 25. 37. Indigenous peoples are the base of what I guess could be called the environmental security system. In the long run, such a path may not be sustainable; it impoverishes many people and can increase pressures on the natural resource base through overcommercialized agriculture and through the marginalization of subsistence farmers. Communities or governments can compensate for this isolation through laws, education, taxes, subsidies, and other methods. Moscow, 11 Dec 1986. The sustainable yield from these stocks may well fall short of demand. "Development in Composition: Building an Essay." More food is required not merely to feed more people but to attack undernourishment. But many problems of resource depletion and environmental stress arise from disparities in economic and political power. (See Chapter 5.). The purpose of the cause-and-effect essay is to determine how various phenomena are related. 5/ Based on data from World Bank, World Development Report 1984 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984). Most technological research by commercial organizations is devoted to product and process innovations that have market value. Economic development is unsustainable if it increases vulnerability to crises. We are the first to detect when the forests are being threatened, as they are under the slash and grab economics of this country. The issue, however, is not simply one of global population size. Reorienting Technology and Managing Risk, 7. The Concept of Sustainable Development, 4. It seems unlikely that, taking developing countries as a whole, these objectives can be accomplished with per capita income growth of under 3 per cent. But growth by itself is not enough. 51. We live from this forest they want to destroy. Hence the very logic of sustainable development implies an internal stimulus to Third World growth. (See Box 2-1.) Non-fuel mineral resources appear to pose fewer supply problems. Large sections of the population may be marginalized by ill-considered development. First, there are the supply problems: the depletion of oil reserves, the high cost and environmental impact of coal mining, and the hazards of nuclear technology. I think that is the one thing, maybe that all of us are hearing here, or expecting: that in every development planning or development issue as much as possible to listen and to include, to consult the people concerned. Oslo, 24-25 June 1985. Every ecosystem everywhere cannot be preserved intact. There is no philosophy. Many of these will manifest themselves in the form of rising costs and diminishing returns, rather than in the form of any sudden loss of a resource base. a political system that secures effective citizen participation in decision making. President, Native Council of Canada A development path that combines growth with reduced vulnerability is more sustainable than one that does not. 11/ W. Hafele and W. Sassin, 'Resources and Endowments, An Outline of Future Energy Systems', in P.W. Air and water quality come under pressure from such activities as fertilizer and pesticide use, urban sewage, fossil fuel burning, the use of certain chemicals, and various other industrial activities. But time is short, and developing countries will also have to promote direct measures to reduce fertility, to avoid going radically beyond the productive potential to support their populations. 27. This need not happen. Similar arrangements are required for major interventions in natural systems, such as river diversion or forest clearance. Substitutes for fuelwood can be promoted. Industrialized countries must recognize that their energy consumption is polluting the biosphere and eating into scarce fossil fuel supplies. 50. At a minimum, sustainable development must not endanger the natural systems that support life on Earth: the atmosphere, the waters, the soils, and the living beings. 23. In the Third World, however, the gradual shift of the industrial base towards the basic material producing sectors is leading to an increase in the energy intensity of industrial production. We will succeed or fail together. 63. 'Losers' in environment/development conflicts include those who suffer more than their fair share of the health, property, and ecosystem damage costs of pollution. A communications gap has kept environmental, population, and development assistance groups apart for too long, preventing us from being aware of our common interest and realizing our combined power. https://www.thoughtco.com/development-composition-term-1690383 (accessed February 23, 2021). But ultimate limits there are, and sustainability requires that long before these are reached, the world must ensure equitable access to the constrained resource and reorient technological efforts to relieve the presume. Second, in low-income developing countries the surplus that can be skimmed off for redistribution is available only from the wealthier groups. Development in Composition: Building an Essay. This is a fraction of the household energy consumption in industrial countries. In industrial countries, the overall rate of population growth is under 1 per cent, and several countries have reached or are approaching zero population growth. 54. Thus more manageable cities may be the principal gain from slower rates of population growth. It principally needs community knowledge and support, which entails greater public participation in the decisions that affect the environment. A literature review may consist of simply a summary of key sources, but in the social sciences, a literature review usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories.A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that … Yet with this surge of technical progress, the growing 'enclosure' of common lands, the erosion of common rights in forests and other resources, and the spread of commerce and production for the market, the responsibilities for decision making are being taken away from both groups and individuals. Thus land should not be degraded beyond reasonable recovery. Nordquist, Richard. 72. Sao Paulo, 28-29 Oct 1985. A child born in a country where levels of material and energy use are high places a greater burden on the Earth's resources than a child born in a poorer country. 53. 34. Nearly 90 per cent of the increase in the developing world will take place in urban areas, the population of which in expected to rise from 1.15 billion in 1985 to 3.25 million in 2025./10 The increase will be particularly marked in Africa and, to a lesser extent, in Asia. Rising levels of income and urbanization and the changing role of women all played important roles. What matters is the sincerity with which these goals are pursued and the effectiveness with which departures from them are corrected. Even the narrow notion of physical sustainability implies a concern for social equity between generations, a concern that must logically be extended to equity within each generation. The medium-term prospects for industrial countries are for growth of 3-4 per cent, the minimum that international financial institutions consider necessary if these countries are going to play a part in expanding the world economy. An industry may get away with unacceptable levels or air and water pollution because the people who bear the brunt of it are poor and unable to complain effectively. But the exploitation of renewable sources such as fuelwood and hydropower also entails ecological problems. If needs are to be met on a sustainable basis the Earth's natural resource base must be conserved and enhanced. 'Making Common Cause' Cleaning up after the event is an expensive solution. Because it is only free people, people who have rights, who are mature and responsible citizens, who then participate in the development and in the protection of the environment. These should be recognized and encouraged. the irrigation practices, pesticides, and fertilizers used on one farm affect the productivity of neighbouring ones, especially among small farms. International institute for Environment and Development As indicated earlier, development that is sustainable has to address the problem of the large number of people who live in absolute poverty - that is, who are unable to satisfy even the most basic of their needs. Such growth rates could be environmentally sustainable if industrialized nations can continue the recent shifts in the content of their growth towards less material- and energy-intensive activities and the improvement of their efficiency in using materials and energy. How are individuals in the real world to be persuaded or made to act in the common interest? The most we have learned to expect is to be compensated, always too late and too little. Third, redistributive policies cannot be so precisely targeted that they deliver benefits only to those who are below the poverty line, so some of the benefits will accrue to those who are just a little above it. The essential needs of vast numbers of people in developing countries for food, clothing, shelter, jobs - are not being met, and beyond their basic needs these people have legitimate aspirations for an improved quality of life. 45. Given current population growth rates, this would require overall national income growth of around 5 per cent a year in the developing economies of Asia, 5.5 per cent in Latin America, and 6 per cent in Africa and West Asia. And species, once extinct, are not renewable. Traditional social systems recognized some aspects of this interdependence and enforced community control over agricultural practices and traditional rights relating to water, forests, and land. This will require policy changes in all countries, with respect both to their own development and to their impacts on other nations' development possibilities. 40. The assumptions here about redistribution reflect three judgements. The simple duplication in the developing world of industrial countries' energy use patterns is neither feasible nor desirable. Interpretations will vary, but must share certain general features and must flow from a consensus on the basic concept of sustainable development and on a broad strategic framework for achieving it. Hence it will be necessary to turn to methods that produce more fish, fuelwood, and forest products under controlled conditions. Between 1985 and 2000 the labour force in developing countries will increase by nearly 800 million, and new livelihood opportunities will have to be generated for 60 million persons every year./5 The pace and pattern of economic development have to generate sustainable work opportunities on this scale and at a level of productivity that would enable poor households to meet minimum consumption standards. The beneficiaries, as well as the victims of any development issue should be included, should be heard. 9. The energy-industry connection is also changing, with a strong tendency towards a decline in the energy intensity of industrial production in industrial countries. Dr. A forest may be depleted in one part of a watershed and extended elsewhere, which is not a bad thing if the exploitation has been planned and the effects on soil erosion rates, water regimes, and genetic losses have been taken into account. If that is taken care of, at least one step of the problem is resolved. 33. In all countries, the processes of generating alternative technologies, upgrading traditional ones, and selecting and adapting imported technologies should be informed by environmental resource concerns. Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is influence by which one event, process, state or object (a cause) contributes to the production of another event, process, state or object (an effect) where the cause is partly responsible for the effect, and the effect is partly dependent on the cause. The efficiency of a factory boiler determines its rate of emission of soot and noxious chemicals and affects all who live and work around it. Economic interactions through trade, finance, investment, and travel will also grow and heighten economic and ecological interdependence. 36. an administrative system that is flexible and has the capacity for self-correction. But most renewable resources are part of a complex and interlinked ecosystem, and maximum sustainable yield must be defined after taking into account system-wide effects of exploitation. 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